Terrazzo flooring is a composite material used for floor and wall treatments, consisting of chips of marble, quartz, granite, glass, or other suitable material, poured with a binder that is cementitious, polymeric, or a combination of both. 

Developed in the 16th century in Italy, terrazzo was first created by Venetian construction workers as a low-cost flooring option. They utilised waste chips from upscale marble slab processing, setting them in clay and grinding them to create a smooth surface. 

Today, terrazzo is making a comeback due to its aesthetic appeal, durability, and the artistry it can bring to a space.

Historical Context of Terrazzo

Terrazzo flooring encompasses centuries of artistry and practical application, originating in Italy and epitomising the artistic flair of Art Deco architecture.

Origins and Evolution

Terrazzo dates back to ancient times, initially seen in Egyptian mosaics, but it was in 15th century Venice that the technique was refined. Venetian construction workers seeking a cost-effective method to surface their terraces started using discarded marble chips from upscale jobs. 

They set them in clay and sealed the surface with goat’s milk, creating a smooth, durable finish. The craftsmanship soon evolved, with Italians developing a more sophisticated form known as pavimento alla Veneziana (Venetian pavement).

By the 18th century, workers had moved on from clay to a mortar base, which allowed for finer polishing and a more refined aesthetic. The method transitioned from utilitarian terraces in Italy to a recognised flooring choice noted for its sturdiness and decorative potential.

Throughout its evolution, the art of creating terrazzo continued to incorporate different materials, like glass and metal, expanding its design capabilities.

Terrazzo in Art and Architecture

During the early 20th century, terrazzo’s appeal spread beyond Italy, embedding itself in the Art Deco movement that swept through Europe and America. This period marked the peak of terrazzo’s integration into art and architecture – its geometric patterns and shimmering surfaces embodying Art Deco’s opulence and love for modernity.

Prominent buildings across the world, including the Hollywood Walk of Fame, showcased terrazzo’s potential to marry functionality and beauty – their floors a mosaic of local culture and craftsmanship. 

The material’s artistic application, however, was not limited to floors. Terrazzo found its way into murals and accents, becoming a medium of expression for artists and architects alike who sought to capture the zeitgeist of the 1920s and 1930s in a durable, vibrant form.

Understanding Terrazzo Flooring

Square-shaped decoration made out of terrazzo

Terrazzo flooring is a versatile and durable option known for its unique blend of aggregates bonded with a composite material.

How Thick is Terrazzo Flooring?

Terrazzo flooring varies in thickness. Traditional sand cushion terrazzo typically ranges from 20 to 30 millimetres, while monolithic terrazzo, which is bonded directly to a concrete slab, has a thickness of about 15 to 25 millimetres. 

Thin-set terrazzo can be as little as 6 to 13 millimetres. The thickness is selected based on the application and the load requirements of the floor space.

Composition and Materials

Terrazzo consists of chips of marble, glass, granite, or other suitable material, that are set within a binding material. Traditionally, the binder was concrete, making terrazzo a composite material. Modern terrazzo, however, often uses a polymer resin as a binder, providing improved durability and aesthetics. 

Coloured pigments can be added to the binder to enhance the design. The ratio of aggregate to binder typically ranges from 70:30 to 50:50, which impacts the final appearance and texture.

Types of Terrazzo Systems

Different systems of terrazzo flooring cater to a variety of needs. 

Epoxy terrazzo is praised for its durability and aesthetic freedom and is ideal for indoor use. Cement-based terrazzo suits both indoor and outdoor environments, offering classic aesthetics. Polyacrylate terrazzo offers benefits like improved curing time and is compatible with both new and remodel constructions. 

Each system has its application and selection is based on factors like environmental exposure, traffic, and desired look.

Design and Aesthetic Aspects

Terrazzo flooring is celebrated for its bespoke design capabilities and attractive aesthetic qualities. It offers vast possibilities in terms of colour, pattern, texture, and style, making it a versatile choice for various stylistic applications.

Colour and Pattern Options

Terrazzo consists of chips of marble, quartz, granite, or glass, which are embedded in a cement or resin base. This composition allows for a remarkable range of colour options, from subtle neutrals to vibrant hues. Manufacturers can create bespoke colour mixes matching specific design requirements, ensuring that each floor can have a unique visual impact. 

Patterns in terrazzo are formed by the arrangement of the different chips, and can range from simple monochrome designs to intricate multi-coloured mosaics.

Stylistic Applications

The style of a terrazzo floor can be tailored to complement any decor, from classic and traditional to modern and contemporary environments. The material’s inherent texture contributes to its aesthetic appeal, with a polished finish offering a glossy look while a matte finish provides a more subdued appearance. 

Terrazzo’s flexibility in texture and finish enables architects and designers to create spaces that reflect a desired atmosphere, whether it’s an elegant lobby or a sleek commercial space.

Terrazzo Installation and Techniques

A photo of chairs located on terrazzo flooring

Terrazzo flooring is a composite material poured in place or precast, which is used for floor and wall treatments. It consists of chips of marble, quartz, granite, glass, or other suitable material, poured with a cementitious binder, polymeric, or a combination of both. 

The installation of terrazzo involves several techniques and considerations that affect both the aesthetic outcome and the longevity of the floor.

Traditional Installation Methods

Traditional installation of terrazzo flooring is a labour-intensive process that typically involves the following steps. 

First, a concrete substrate must be prepared to ensure a solid foundation. 

Then, divider strips are strategically placed to delineate the design pattern and allow for expansion and contraction. These divider strips can also serve a decorative purpose. 

Next, the mixture of aggregate and binder is poured, levelled, and trowelled. After curing, the surface is ground and polished to reveal the beauty of the decorative chips.

Contemporary Installation Practices

In contrast, contemporary practices include the use of terrazzo tiles and precast terrazzo, which allow for easier and faster installation. Terrazzo tiles come pre-manufactured and can be directly applied to a suitable substrate with an adhesive. Precast terrazzo is often used for stair treads, wall panels, and countertops. 

Some terrazzo systems now integrate underfloor heating, which must be carefully planned before the installation of the flooring. Installation costs may vary widely depending on the complexity of the design and the chosen method. 

Contemporary techniques greatly reduce the time and labour once associated with terrazzo flooring while upholding its bespoke and elegant appearance.

Caring for Terrazzo Flooring

Maintaining the integrity and lustre of terrazzo flooring involves regular cleaning, along with periodic repair and restoration. The following specific measures ensure its longevity and aesthetic appeal.

How to Clean Terrazzo Flooring?

To clean terrazzo flooring, one begins by removing loose debris with a dry dust mop. It is critical to avoid using harsh cleaners that could etch the surface. Neutral pH cleaners are the preferred choice. Mopping should be done with soft cloths or mops to prevent scratches.

For periodic deep cleaning, professionals may employ a slightly more concentrated neutral cleaner followed by polishing. The polishing helps in restoring the gloss that can become dull with daily wear.

Repair and Restoration

Terrazzo flooring may develop cracks over time, which need immediate attention to prevent extensive damage. The process of repair typically involves the following steps: identifying the reason for cracking, such as a failing subfloor; abrading the affected area; and then filling the cracks with a matching terrazzo mix.

Restoration of terrazzo flooring is centred on grinding down the top layer using diamond abrasive pads, thereby removing any superficial damage. Subsequently, they polish the surface to bring back the original sheen. Regular restoration is advantageous for both the appearance and the preservation of the flooring.

Advantages and Limitations

In assessing terrazzo flooring, it is essential to weigh its long-term durability and the implications of its initial cost, which both play significant roles in its overall value proposition.

Durability and Maintenance

Terrazzo floors are renowned for their exceptional durability and long lifespan. They are capable of withstanding extensive foot traffic, making them a popular choice for public buildings such as schools, hospitals, and airports. 

The maintenance of terrazzo flooring tends to be low in comparison to other materials, due it being highly resistant to scratches and stains. Regular sweeping and occasional polishing are typically sufficient to preserve its lustrous appearance.

Cost Implications

Despite the initial investment in terrazzo flooring being relatively expensive, this cost is often mitigated over time due to its minimal maintenance requirements and longevity. The installation process is labour-intensive and requires skilled tradespeople, contributing to the higher upfront costs. 

However, when one considers the floor’s extended lifecycle, the expense can be perceived as cost-effective. The absence of frequent replacements or major repairs lowers the total cost of ownership in the long term.

Sustainability and Environmental Impact

Terrazzo flooring stands out for its eco-friendly qualities due to the sustainable materials commonly employed in its composition. The aggregates used in Terrazzo, such as recycled glass, white marble chips, or other stone fragments, contribute significantly to the waste reduction effort. 

The incorporation of such recycled content minimises the exploitation of natural resources and thereby lessens the environmental footprint of construction.

Resin-based Terrazzo systems offer an added advantage in terms of sustainability. Resins, derived from both natural and synthetic sources, serve as a binder for the aggregates and can be formulated to contain low amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). 

This development is beneficial in promoting indoor air quality and lessening adverse environmental impact.

The manufacturing process of Terrazzo is conducive to lifespan efficiency. Due to its durability, the need for replacement is infrequent, meaning the energy and resources consumed during the creation and installation of Terrazzo are effectively extended over an extended period. 

This long-term approach reduces the demand on materials and energy otherwise necessitated by more frequent renovations.

The maintenance of Terrazzo also presents an environmentally sound practice. It generally requires simple, non-toxic cleaning agents, thus reducing the chemical load introduced to ecosystems and water sources. 

When Terrazzo reaches the end of its service life, the majority of the materials used can be reprocessed and reused, thereby embodying the principles of sustainable design.

Comparing Terrazzo to Other Flooring Options

Terrazzo photographed from up close

Terrazzo flooring offers a unique set of characteristics when compared to other flooring options like hardwood and tile. Understanding these differences is key to making an informed decision for residential or commercial applications.

Terrazzo vs Hardwood

Maintenance – Terrazzo floors stand out for their ease of maintenance compared to hardwood. Hardwood floors require regular sanding and refinishing to maintain their lustre, while terrazzo’s polished finish is restored with simple cleaning and occasional polishing.

Durability – Hardwood is susceptible to scratches, dents, and water damage over time. Terrazzo, composed of marble chips embedded in concrete or epoxy, is highly durable and well-suited for high-traffic areas.

Longevity – In terms of longevity, terrazzo can last for decades without needing replacement, whereas hardwood might need to be replaced or repaired more frequently.

Aesthetics – Hardwood offers warmth and a classic look that can enhance the cosiness of a space. Terrazzo, on the other hand, provides a more modern and artistic aesthetic with its speckled appearance due to the incorporation of various materials like granite, marble, and porcelain.

Terrazzo vs Tile

Installation – Laying tile may be less complex than installing terrazzo, which typically requires a professional with expertise in mixing and setting the compound.

Cost – Upfront costs for terrazzo can be higher compared to ceramic or porcelain tile. However, its longevity can make terrazzo more cost-effective in the long term.

Design Flexibility – Tiles come in a myriad of designs, shapes, and sizes, giving them a high degree of customisability. However, terrazzo also offers design flexibility with the ability to create intricate patterns and the choice of diverse colours through different pigments.

Comfort – Tile can feel colder and harder underfoot. Terrazzo floors, especially when paired with an underfloor heating system, can offer more comfort and consistent warmth.

Resilience – Both options are sturdy, but terrazzo has superior resistance to cracks and chips due to its composition and the method of installation, which creates a seamless surface.


In conclusion, terrazzo flooring presents a blend of durability, aesthetics, and environmental efficiency, making it a trendy option for flooring needs, whether inside or outside your home

Its attributes have affirmed terrazzo’s reputation as a worthwhile investment in various construction projects across the world.

Author Midland Stone

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